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General Information

Area: 1,648,000 km2

The capital: Tehran

Language: Persian (official), Azeri Turkic, Kurdish, Beluci, Persian dialects

The official language, Persian, is written in Arabic letters, but it is an Indo-European language family. More than half of the population speak Persian. The second common language is the Azerbaijani Turkic language, which constitutes 45% of the population and is spoken by Azeri Turks. Beluci is the other main language spoken by Gilaki and Mazenderani, as well as two local spots of Kurdish and Persian

  • Religion: Muslim (90% Shiite, 8% Sunni), Christian, Jewish
  • The majority of the 99% Muslim population is Shi’i (90%),
  • Currency: 1 riyal = 100 dinars
  • Major cities: Isfahan, Mashhad, Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahvaz) Bettaran, Kum, Urmiye, Rasht, Hamedan.

 

It is the state in Southwest Asia. The territory of the country where one of the oldest civilizations of the Middle East is founded; the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea from the south; Armenia, Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan from the north; It is surrounded by Turkey and Iraq from the west, Afghanistan and Pakistan from the east

Surface Shapes; The territory of the country, which has a distinct unity in terms of surface features, consists of large mountainous areas and springs.

The average elevation is 915 m above sea level. The total area of ​​flat areas and ovals is only 7%. In the west, mountain orders more intense in the north form the two main regions: the Zagros Mountains, which extend along the southern-eastern direction of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iraq, along the 2.250 km to the Pakistan border, and the Elbruz Mountains, which form the northern border of the country. Between these two systems are the Eastern Mountains which are scattered in the east and formed in lower peaks. Thus formed mountain borders include the Central Plateau, which is formed by a large number of basins, each containing several marshes and sand deserts at their lowest points. The Caspian Sea coastal zone at the northern end and the Huzistan Plain, the rural extension of the Mesopotamian Plain in Iran, remain outside the aforementioned mountain boundaries.

 

The Zagros Region is a region formed by mountain curves rising steeply from the Mesopotamian Plain. The northern part of this region extends to the mountainous areas east of Turkey and the Caucasus Mountains in Azerbaijan and Armenia. In this region, the mountain line becomes volcanic and looks like an irregular and bare plateau where it intersects. The largest volcano hills north of the country are Savalan and Sahand. Urmiye Lake (Rizaiye), Iran’s largest lake, is located in a shallow basin in the Zagros Region. Less depth is very convenient for fishing and irrigation due to the high salt content. To the south of the Zagros Region is a gigantic mountain range with heights ranging from 3,650 to 2,250 m, mostly parallel. In the more southern parts, Zagros Mountain loses its regular forms and elevations. The most striking part of this region is the Shiraz Basin. The second most important natural region in the country is the Elbruz Region, which is formed in narrow mountain ranges with the highest level reaching the peak in Demavend Tepesi. The Caspian Sea and the Caspian Sea are located in the north of this region, which is covered with snow in winter. The Veramin Plain, located on the slopes of the mountains where the administrative center of Tehran is founded, is one of these regions in arid regions south of Elbruz Mountain. The eastern hills, salt deserts, steppes, hills, there is a very unfavorable area for settlement. In Khorasan and Mashhad in the north, the soil is suitable for agriculture. The area in the center of the Iranian soil consists of many sand deserts or salt basins containing deep salt marshes. Certain sections of this region are completely empty, whereas in some of the major tourist centers, Isfahan, the land is highly efficient. The irrigation facilities provided from the Huzistan Plain, Dez Dam, located in the southeastern part of Turkey, have been brought to an efficient state. The main island of the country is the Persian Gulf, and the Kishmish Island in the Hormuz Bosphorus (1,336 km2).

Climate; The fact that the land is at a very high elevation from the sea level, if the air mass from Siberia is extremely cold in winter, and the currents that originate in India and Arabia, especially in summer, lead to very hot summers. The precipitation, which affects a large part of the country, is only seen between October and March. Humidity is high in some parts. In the eastern soil, effective sandstorms are experienced in certain months of the year. The average annual precipitation varies between 100 and 250 mm. The temperature in the country is + 38 ° -9 ° C in summer.

 

Vegetation and Animals; In the Caspian Region, besides the semi-tropical temporary forests, forests are found in the deep valleys of mountainous lans. In other places, vegetation is rickety and unstableDespite large steppe and semi-desert areas, carnivores such as jackals and wolves are widely spread; wild-pigs, mountaineers, muflons in mountainous areas; various rodents, reptiles live in desert areas. Black bears living in the northwest

 

 

General Information and Some Reminders

ran is the country with an area of ​​1.648.000 km2. According to the census of 2013, the population is 74.5 million and the population is distributed according to religion and sects; 90% Shiite, 8% Sunni and 2% Zarathustra, Christian and Jewish. According to the Iranian Constitution, official religion is Islam and the sect is Caferi. The freedom of worship of religious and sectarian minorities is guaranteed by the Constitution. 5 of 290 seats owned by the Assembly have been allocated to minorities.According to official figures, 35% of the Iranian population in ethnicity is Persian, 45% are Azeri Turks, 7% are Kurds, 2% are blouses. 7% Arab, 2% Afghans and 2% Turkmen. According to a common belief, the population of Persian origin and the population of Turkish origin are approximately equal. As a matter of fact, it is noteworthy that senior managers have taken care to establish a balance in this direction. For example, after Ayatollah Khomeini of Persian origin, Ayatollah Khamenei of Turkish origin was brought to the court of Velayet-i Fakih. In the recent past, similar balances have been seen between presidential and parliamentary positions. Another feature of Iran is that it has many border neighbors. The number of Iranian land and sea neighbors (Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kuwait, Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) is 15. Iran has 5,500 km of land and 2,500 km of sea hudu, as well as 750 km of coastline in the Caspian Sea. There are press reports that the literacy rate in the country has reached 90%.

 

 Iran, which has been the scene of the Russian-British influence struggle throughout history, has been invaded by these two forces into the territories of influence, despite trying to be neutral in both world wars. The country that separates Iran from Europe today is Turkey, and Armenia and Azerbaijan, the other western and northwestern neighbors of Iran, are members of the Council of Europe. The oil exported by the Gulf countries passes through the Hormuz Strait. Although the Strait of Hormuz is suitable for the passage of large tankers, the part with a depth of 45-60 meters is on the Iranian side of the Bosphorus. In this respect, it is possible to say that the control of the Strait of Hormuz is in the hands of Iran.
 
 
 
 Since 1501, Iran is the first official Shiite state in the Islamic world and has a belief in the Ahl al-Bayt. There is a hierarchical order among clergy. Every believer Shia is obliged to imitate a Ayatollah who is trusted after the 12th imam’s unseen. The conclusion of the majority of the people imitating Ayatollah Khomeini is that, in harmony with the orders given by Paris, the realization of the Islamic revolution has become easier. Although the state administration is based on a theocratic system, the majority is elected president by elections held every 4 years. To enter the 290-member Parliament, a parliamentary candidate must first obtain a permit from the Ministry of Interior, the Intelligence Ministry and the Guard Council. Of the members of the Guard Council, 6 are composed of clergy and the other 6 are composed of lawmakers elected by the parliament. The Guards Council also monitors the compliance of laws with the Constitution.
 
 
 In Iran, the president is not the modern president of the state, but rather acts as the head of the government, while the head of the state of Velayet-i Fakih controls the main bodies of the state. Velayet-i Fakih is theoretically selected by the Council of Experts, which consists of 86 religions. Khomeini himself, however, has taken this approach and has chosen Ayatollah Montazari as his assistant. In 1989, he elected then President Ali Khamenei, and the Council of Experts confirmed it. The leader of the Velayet-i Fakih has the authority to intervene in all judicial and jurisdictional applications, including law enforcement and armed forces, and there is a representative in each ministry and besides every province governor.